Forging an international consensus on responsible conduct in the global research enterprise.
A global research enterprise is emerging, with enormous benefit to economic and social well-being. Today throughout the world, millions more scientists and engineers are working than there were just two decades ago. Many countries are now investing substantial sums in scientific, engineering, medical, social science and other scholarly research. Multinational research teams are on the increase. In this new global context, shared scientific core values and norms are important for both the research...
A global research enterprise is emerging, with enormous benefit to economic and social well-being. Today throughout the world, millions more scientists and engineers are working than there were just two decades ago. Many countries are now investing substantial sums in scientific, engineering, medical, social science and other scholarly research. Multinational research teams are on the increase. In this new global context, shared scientific core values and norms are important for both the research community and the broader public. Yet significant differences among countries have been revealed in the definitions of and approaches to the conduct of responsible research.
These urgent issues are being addressed by the world’s national scientific academies through their representative international organizations, the InterAcademy Council (IAC) and the IAP - the global network of science academies. This report, sponsored by IAC and IAP, represents the first joint effort by the scientific academies to provide clarity and advice in forging an international consensus on responsible conduct in the global research enterprise. It acknowledges and draws on information and recommendations from the many national and international organizations that have issued guidelines and statements on the basic responsibilities and obligations of researchers.
Responsible Conduct in the Global Research Enterprise is available in the following languages: English, German, Japanese, Chinese, Arabic
The German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina published a German translation of the report.
The Chinese Academy of Sciences published a Chinese translation of the report.
The Science Council of Japan published a Japanese translation of the report.
An Arabic Translation is now available for download.
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40 Responsible conduct in the global research enterprise | A policy report
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Responsible conduct in the global research enterprise | A policy report 41
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42 Responsible conduct in the global research enterprise | A policy report
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Indira Nath (Co-Chair) is Raja Ramanna Fellow and Emeritus Professor, National Institute of Pathology (ICMR), Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi, India. She received an MBBS from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, and later served on the Faculty of AIIMS, making pioneering contributions to immunology research by her seminal work on cellular immune responses in human leprosy and a search for markers for viability of the leprosy bacillus which is not cultivable. She has also mentored many MBiotech, MD, and PhD students and made contributions to education, medical and science policies, and women scientists’ issues. She was a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee to Cabinet, Foreign Secretary INSA (1995–1997), council member (1992–1994 and 1998–2006) and vice president (2001–2003) of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, and chairperson, Women Scientists Programme, DST (2003). She was conferred numerous awards, notably: Padmashri (1999), Chevalier Ordre National du Merite, France (2003), Silver Banner, Tuscany, Italy (2003), L’Oreal UNESCO Award for Women in Science (Asia Pacific) (2002), SS Bhatnagar Award (1983), and the Basanti Devi Amir Chand Award by ICMR (1994). She was elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, Delhi; National Academy of Sciences (India), Allahabad (1988); Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore (1990); National Academy of Medical Sciences (India) (1992); Royal College of Pathology (1992); and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) (1995). She was conferred a DSc (hc) 2002, by Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France.
Professor Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker (Co-Chair) is secretary general of the Human Frontier Science Program Organization (HFSPO). He studied chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) where he obtained his PhD in 1968. After postdoctoral work at the University of California in Berkeley and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm from 1968 to 1972, he became assistant and then DFG Visiting Professor at the Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne. In 1977 he was appointed associate professor at the Institute of Biochemistry at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, where he was made full professor in 1980. From 1984 to 1997, he was director of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the University of Munich Gene Center. He served as president of the German Research Foundation (DFG) from 1998 to 2006. From 2003 to 2004 he also chaired the European Heads of Research Councils (EUROHORCs). He served as secretary general of the European Research Council (ERC) from 2007 to 2009. Professor Winnacker is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. His main fields of research are virus-cell interaction, the mechanisms of gene expression in higher cells, and prion diseases.
Professor Renfrew Christie has been dean of research at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, for 22 years. A specialist in the politics and economics of energy, and in the history of science and technology, his Oxford doctorate treated the electrification of South Africa over 70 years. A whistle-blower for the African National Congress, on the apartheid nuclear weapons program, he was imprisoned for terrorism for seven and a half years in Pretoria. He cofounded the Macro Economic Research Group and the National Institute for Economic policy, which helped set South Africa’s economy right after apartheid. He holds the Certificate of Commendation of the Chief of the South African Navy, for contributions to the democratic transformation of the South African Navy after apartheid. For 22 years he has been a member of the Board of Trustees of South Africa’s premier human rights law unit, the UWC Community Law Centre, and has chaired the board for 15 years. His handwriting was on the second draft of the South African Bill of Rights. He is a defence force service commissioner, whose task is to advise the minister on the conditions of service of South Africa’s troops. He has chaired the South African Commonwealth Scholarships Selection Committee for 15 years. He has held visiting fellowships in the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington D.C.; the Stiftung fur Wissenschaft und Politik, then in Ebenhausen; and the Indian Ocean Peace Centre, in Perth, Western Australia. He has had the privilege of addressing the Groupe Crises of the Institut de France on the Quai de Conti, Paris. He attended both the Lisbon and Singapore World Conferences on Research Integrity. He is a signatory on the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. He is a member of the Academy of Science of South Africa and a fellow of the Royal Society of South Africa.
Pieter J. D. Drenth studied psychology from 1952 to 1958, and received his PhD in 1960 at the VU University Amsterdam. With a Fulbright scholarship, he studied and worked in the United States (New York University and Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey) from 1960 to 1961. From 1962 to 1967 he was lecturer in test theory and statistics, and from 1967 to 2006 he was professor in test and scale theory and work and organisational psychology at the VU University Amsterdam. He was visiting professor at Washington University in St. Louis, (1966) and the University of Washington, Seattle (1977). From 1982 to 1987 he was Rector Magnificus at the VU University Amsterdam, and from 1990 to 1996 he was president of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. From 2000 to 2006 he was president, and since 2006 has been honorary president, of ALL European Academies (ALLEA, the European federation of national academies of sciences and humanities). For his scientific work he received two honorary doctorates (Gent, 1981, and Paris Sorbonne, 1996). Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands conferred on him the knighthood in the order of the Netherlands’ Lion (1990) and the commandership in the order of Oranje Nassau (1996).
Paula Kivimaa received her PhD in organizations and management and is a senior researcher at the Finnish Environment Institute, a government research organization in Finland. Since 2003 she has carried out research on the emergence of eco-innovations in energy and forest sectors and on policy evaluation related to climate, energy, and innovation policies. Her current research focuses on innovations in energy and transport systems and on climate policy integration. Dr. Kivimaa obtained her PhD from Helsinki School of Economics in 2008. In 2009 she was an IAP-selected Young Scientist in the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting of the New Champions. In 2010 she was among the Young Scientists who established a global organization of early-career scientists, Global Young Academy, and acted as an executive committee member during the first year of operation.
Professor Li Zhenzhen works as a research fellow in the Institute of Policy and Management, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IPM-CAS), where she serves as the director of the Research Department of Policy for Science and Technology Development and the Research Section of Science, Technology and Society. In addition, she is the director of the Research Center for Ethics of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (RCEST-CAS) and Research Center for Academic Morality and Scientific Ethics, Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (RCAMSE-CASAD), and the executive deputy editor in chief for the academic journal Science and Society. Her research interests mainly lie in the field of social studies of science, ethics of science and technology, as well as science and technology policy. In recent years, she has taken charge of major research projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, China Association for Science and Technology, and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In addition, she has been involved in several consultation projects associated with scientific affairs for government departments and civil society, and has participated in drafting policy papers and reviewing law texts.
José A. Lozano received his PhD in geology from Columbia University in 1974. He is a retired professor of the National University of Colombia (1963–1991), where he occupied several academic administrative positions and was a member of varied administrative academic committees. Professor Lozano is presently general secretary (elected) and executive secretary (appointed) of the Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences. He is a correspondent member of the Spanish Academy of Sciences, the focal point for Colombia of the Interamerican Network of Academies of Sciences (IANAS) Science Education Program, president of the Colombian Formation Environmental Net (Red Colombiana de Formación Ambiental), and secretary of the Professional Colombian Council of Geology. His interests encompass science education, capacity building, earth system science with emphasis in marine geology, and environmental sciences and policies. His previous positions include director of the Marine Research Institute, José Benito Vives de Andréis Marine and Coastal Research Institute (INVEMAR), Punta de Betín, Santa Marta (1979–1981); adjunct professor, Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of South Carolina (1987–1990); national correspondent of the IUGS Commission for Marine Geology (1982–1990); chairman of the National Committee International Geosphere, Biosphere Programme (IGBP) (1993-2004); secretary of the Caribbean Scientific Union (CCC) (2005–2007); and coordinator of the IANAS Science Education Program (2006–2010).
Barbara Schaal is the Mary Dell Chilton Distinguished Professor in Arts and Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis. She currently serves as vice president of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, chair of the Division on Earth and Life Studies at the National Research Council, and is a member of President Obama’s Council of Advisors for Science and Technology. She is a plant evolutionary biologist who uses DNA sequences to understand evolutionary processes such as gene flow, geographical differentiation, and the domestication of crop species. Her current research focuses on the evolutionary genomics of rice. Professor Schaal was born in Berlin, Germany, and grew up in Chicago, Illinois. She graduated from the University of Illinois at Chicago with a degree in biology and received a PhD from Yale University. She has been president of the Botanical Society of America and the Society for the Study of Evolution and is an elected member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Robbert DIJKGRAAF, Co-Chair
Past President, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)
LU Yongxiang, Co-Chair
Past President, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Ahmet Cevat ACAR, Member
President, Turkish Academy of Sciences
Howard ALPER, Ex Officio Member
Co-Chair, IAP – the global network of science academies
Jo Ivey BOUFFORD, Ex Officio Member
Co-Chair, InterAcademy Medical Panel
Alain CARPENTIER, Member
President, Académie des Sciences, France
Eduardo CHARREAU , Member
President, Argentina National Academy of Exact,
Physical and Natural Sciences
Ralph CICERONE, Member
President, U.S. National Academy of Sciences
Suzanne CORY, Member
President, Australian Academy of Science
Robin CREWE, Member
President, Academy of Science of South Africa
Luiz DAV IDOVICH, Member
Board of Directors, Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Jörg HACKER, Member
President, German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
Mohamed H.A. HASSAN, Member
Past President, African Academy of Sciences
Krishan LAL, Member
President, Indian National Science Academy
Sangkot Marzuki, Member
President, Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Paul NURSE, Member
President, The Royal Society, United Kingdom
Takashi ONISHI, Member
President, Science Council of Japan
Jacob PALIS, Member
President, Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS)
Achiel Van Cauwenberghe, Ex Officio Member
Former President, International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences (CAETS)
Sergio PaStrana, Observer
Vice President for External Relations, International Council for Science (ICSU)
John P. CAMPBELL, Executive Director
Paulo de GÓES, Associate Director
Anne MULLER, Program Coordinator
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan (ASA)
Albanian Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN), Argentina
National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
Australian Academy of Science
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences (BAS)
National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (NASB)
The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium (RASAB)
Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia (ANCB)
Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ANUBiH)
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Cameroon Academy of Sciences
RSC: The Academies of Arts, Humanities and Sciences of Canada
Caribbean Academy of Sciences (CAS)
Academia Chilena de Ciencias
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica, Taipei, China
Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Academy of Sciences of Cuba
The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
Academia de Ciencias de la República Dominicana
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Egypt
Estonian Academy of Sciences
Ethiopian Academy of Sciences (EAS)
The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters
Académie des Sciences, France
Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS)
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences (GAAS)
The Academy of Athens, Greece
Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Físicas y Naturales de Guatemala
Pontificia Academia Scientiarvm
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Indian National Science Academy (INSA)
Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Royal Irish Academy
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei
The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS)
Science Council of Japan (SCJ)
Royal Scientific Society of Jordan (RSS)
Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS)
National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan
African Academy of Sciences (AAS)
Kenya National Academy of Sciences (KNAS)
Korean Academy of Science and Technology (KAST)
The National Academy of Sciences (KNAS), Rep. of Korea
Kosovo Academy of Sciences and Arts
National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic (NAS KR)
Latvian Academy of Sciences (LAS)
Lebanese Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Madagascar's National Academy of Arts, Letters and Sciences (AcNALS)
Akademi Sains Malaysia (ASM)
Mauritius Academy of Science and Technology (MAST)
Academia Mexicana de Ciencias
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Mongolian Academy of Sciences (MAS)
Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA)
Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Morocco
Academy of Science of Mozambique
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST)
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)
Academy of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Nicaraguan Academy of Sciences
Nigerian Academy of Sciences
The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS)
Palestine Academy for Science and Technology (PALAST)
Academia Nacional de Ciencias del Perú
National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Philippines
Polish Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, Portugal
Russian Academy of Sciences
Académie des Sciences et Techniques du Sénégal
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Singapore National Academy of Sciences (SNAS)
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA)
Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf)
Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain
National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka
Sudanese National Academy of Science (SNAS)
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (RSAS)
Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan
Tanzania Academy of Sciences (TAAS)
Thai Academy of Science and Technology (TAST)
Turkish Academy of Sciences (TÜBA)
Uganda National Academy of Sciences (UNAS)
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
The Royal Society, UK
US National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences (UzAS)
Latin American Academy of Sciences (ACAL)
Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y
Naturales de Venezuela
Zimbabwe Academy of Sciences (ZAS)
• Howard Alper, Canada (Co-Chair)
• Mohamed H.A. Hassan, Sudan (Co-Chair)
• Australian Academy of Science
• Academia Chilena de Ciencias
• Chinese Academy of Sciences
• Académie des Sciences, France
• Indian National Science Academy
• Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy
• Akademi Sains Malaysia
• Academia Mexicana de Ciencias
• The Royal Society, UK
• US National Academy of Sciences observer: The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS)
Lucilla Spini, IAP/IAMP Coordinator
Joanna Lacey, IAP Senior Project Assistant