The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is an honorific society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. The NAS was signed into being by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, at the height of the Civil War. As mandated in its Act of Incorporation, the NAS has, since 1863, served to "investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art" whenever called upon to do so by any department of the government. Scientific issues would become even more contentious and complex in the years following the war. To keep pace with the growing roles that science and technology would play in public life, the institution that was founded in 1863 eventually expanded to include the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Collectively, the four organizations are known as the National Academies.
PostedMay 24, 2019
UpdatedMay 24, 2019
Understanding relationships between poverty and environment is crucial for sustainable development and ecological conservation. Annual monitoring of socioeconomic changes using household surveys is prohibitively expensive. Here, we demonstrate that satellite data predicted the poorest households in a landscape in Kenya with 62% accuracy. A multilevel socioecological treatment of satellite data accounting for the complex ways in which households interact with the environment provided better prediction than the standard single-buffer approach. The increasing availability of high-resolution satellite data and volunteered geographic data means this method could be modified and upscaled in the future to help monitor the sustainable development goals.
Research, policy, and practice should be integrated to understand, guide, and implement the changes necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, from an analysis of research literature, policy indicators, and assessment tools for agriculture in Europe, we find that more than half of the 239 variables identified are currently used by only one of these perspectives. We identify a limited set of 32 variables that all three perspectives share and suggest these can be a starting point for designing future research to more comprehensively analyze trade-offs and identify opportunities for achieving the SDGs. Our method for assessing differences among perspectives in research, policy, and practice is a way to balance and implement sustainability goals for sectors and regions.