The Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT) was established by Presidential Decree No. 2405 of September 1971 as the national body responsible for science and technology in Egypt, and was affiliated to the Prime Minister. However, the ASRT changed its affiliation several times. The ASRT is affiliated at present, and since 1986, to the Minister of State for Scientific Research, who is the official spokesman for ASRT towards political and legislative authorities. A Second Presidential Decree No. 377 of 1998 was issued for the reorganization of ASRT, where the ASRT is considered a public authority with an independent status and affiliated to the Minister of State for Scientific Research Affairs, with headquarters in Cairo.