The regular scientific research work in Tajikistan was started at the end of the 1920th and the beginning of the 1930th . These works were carried out by the scientists and scholars of the Academy of Sciences of USSR in the form of the realization of complex expeditions. The tasks of these expeditions included: to study the history and culture of the Tajik people, to investigate the natural resources of the country, to set up the research centers, and to train the scientific staff of the country. These expeditions, which included geographers, geologists, botanists, zoologists, geodesists, economists, historians, orientalists and other specialists, collected a huge primary material which afterwards served as the basis for systematic and purposeful scientific research. They had done a impressive work in studying the flora and fauna of Tajikistan, revealing its hydro-electric potential, and its mineral and fuel resources. Also during those expeditions, scientists designed the prospects of development of new lands and of the industrial development of the country on the basis of its natural resources. The results of research of those expeditions' were heard and discussed by the Commission of the Academy of Sciences of USSR. It adopted the decision of organizing the Tajik Base of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR for conducting constant research work in the territory of the Republic
The Tajik Base of the Academy of Sciences of USSR was established in January 1933. Its first director became the academician, Prof. S.F. Oldenburg (1863- 1935). The Base united departments of geology, botany, zoology and parasitology, soil research, and humanities.
The necessity of organizing specialized scientific establishments - institutes, capable of solving important fundamental problems, appeared at the beginning of the 1940s.
At the beginning of 1941 the Tajik Base of the Academy of Sciences of USSR was transformed into the Tajik Branch of the Academy of Sciences of USSR. At that time it had the following institutes: the Institute of Geology, the Institute of Botany, the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology, the Institute of History, the Institute of Language and Literature. Academician, Prof E.N.Pavlovskiy was the Head of the Tajik Branch of AS USSR to whom much is owed, due to his exceptional merits regarding the development of science in Tasjikistan and the information about that process.
The establishment of the Tajik Branch of AS USSR promoted further development of sciences in Tajikistan, in spite of the fact that its activity coincided with the difficult years of the Second World War and the post-war period of reconstruction of the national economy.
The result of ten-years' activity of the Tajik Branch of the Academy of Sciences of USSR was the ground for the wide development of scientific research and more than 700 scientists were trained. Finally, the conditions for the establishment of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan had been created and it was formally founded in April 14, 1951.
The total number of workers of the AS RT is 2149 people, including 866 researchers (140 Doctors of sciences and 339 Candidates of sciences) and 387 staff without scientific degree. There are 76 members of the AS RT, including 28 academicians/full members and 51 Corresponding Members. Academy of Sciences of RT also has 13 foreign members.
Nowadays the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan has 21 research institutes, including the Pamir Branch of AS RT, which comprises 2 institutes. There are two provincial research centres: Khatlon Scientific/Research Centre in southern Tajikistan and Khujand Scientific/Research Centre in northern Tajikistan. There are a number of other scientific establishments conducting research work in the fields of natural, technical, medical, and social sciences as well.
The scientific establishments of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan are incorporated in three Divisions:
The Division of Physical-Mathematical, Chemical and Geological Sciences has the following institutes: the Institute of Mathematics, the S.U.Umarov Physical-Technical Institute, the Institute of Astrophysics, V.I.Nikitin's Institute of Chemistry, the Institute of Geology, the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, the Institute of Water Issues, Hydroenergy and Ecology, the Department of Material Sciences and Nuclear and Radiation Safety Agency.
The Division of Biological and Medical Sciences includes the following institutes: the Institute of Botany, E.N.Pavlovskiy Institute of Zoology and Parasitology, the Institute of Physiology of Plants and Genetics, the Institute of Gastroenterology, and the Kh.Yu.Yusufbekov Pamir Biological Institute.
The Division of Social Sciences unites the following institutes: the A.Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, the Institute of Oriental Studies and Written Heritage, the A.Donish Institute of History, Archaeology, and Ethnography, the Institute of Philosophy, the Institute of Economics, the Institute of Demography, the Institute of Humanities, and the Institute of State and Law.
Due to new socio-economic conditions in the country and achievement of independence it became necessary to conduct radical reconstruction of the economy and to reform the national educational system. Finally, all these problems required serious scientific ground. The strategy of further development of Tajikistan and realization of its scientific-technical and industrial potential requires multiple increasing of the role of fundamental sciences in this process.
Many elaborations have found a practical application in major branches of the national economy, such as agriculture, construction, metallurgy, chemical industry, computers, geology, public health services. Introduction of these elaborations allow the Academy to obtain new materials, medicinal preparations, to solve problems of seismic safety of industrial complexes and dams, and to raise productivity of agricultural crops.
During the years of independence, the scientific establishments of the Academy of Sciences received more than 150 copyright certificates and patents of Republic of Tajikistan and Russian Federation for their inventions.
The Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan maintains the widest international connections with scientific centers of different foreign countries. According to the decision of the Council of Government Heads of NIS and with the purpose of further expansion of integration processes in the field of science, the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan accepts the most active participation in the elaboration and implementation of Conventions and Agreements within the framework of Interstate Integration Committee.
The international relations extend on the basis of interstates' agreements or direct contracts between the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan and research centers of foreign countries.
The scientific potential of Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan is sufficiently high. The Academy of Sciences has much experience and has to exert more influence in the development of science, culture, education, and economy of the Republic of Tajikistan.