Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future

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  • Annex D: List of boxes, figures, and tables

    Boxes

    Box 1.1             Energy and the Millennium Development Goals 4
    Box 1.2             A focus on cooking in the developing world 13
    Box 2.1             Japan’s Top Runner Program 37
    Box 3.1             Four generations of nuclear reactors 83
    Box 3.2             Frontiers in biofuels production 114
    Box 4.1             Reducing emissions: Taxes vs. cap-and-trade programs 132
    Box 4.2             Energy subsidies 141
    Box 4.3             The Grameen experience with photovoltaics 142

    Figures

    Figure 1.1         Energy Intensity versus time, 1985-2005 6
    Figure 1.2         Regional shares in world primary energy demand, including business-as-usual
                              projections 8
    Figure 1.3         World primary energy consumption by fuel, 2004 9
    Figure 1.4         World electricity production by energy source, 2004 9
    Figure 1.5         The energy ladder: Relative pollutant emissions per meal 13
    Figure 1.6         Relationship between human development index (HDI) and per capita
                              electricity consumption, 2003 – 2004 14x
    Figure 2.1         The energy chain 24
    Figure 2.2         Technology innovation and the production function 26
    Figure 2.3         United States over time 33
    Figure 2.4         Shares of primary energy use in U.S. commercial buildings 35
    Figure 2.5         U.S. transportation energy consumption by mode, 2005 (trillion Btu) 44
    Figure 2.6         Comparison of auto fuel efficiency by auto fuel economy standards among 
                               countries, normalized to U.S. test procedure 49
    Figure 3.1         Efficiency of coal-fired power production 63
    Figure 3.2         From coal to electricity and usable products 64
    Figure 3.3         Schematic illustration of a sedimentary basin with a number of geological
                              sequestration options 71
    Figure 3.4         Existing and planned/proposed nuclear reactors in the world   78
    Figure 3.5         World incremental electricity generation by fuel type   79
    Figure 3.6         Regional distribution of global nuclear capacity in the IAEA’s high
                               projection   81
    Figure 3.7         Modern renewables projections for 2010 and 2020   95
    Figure 3.8         Potential Pathways for Biofuels Production   111
    Figure 4.1         The development of crude oil prices over the last three decades   128
    Figure 4.2         Public energy R&D expenditures in IEA countries and real oil price
                              1974–2004  137

    Tables
    Table 1.1           World primary energy demand by fuel   10
    Table 3.1           Consumption, reserves and resources of fossil fuels   59
    Table 3.2           World-wide CO2 geological sequestration capacity estimates   72
    Table 3.3           Comparative power costs   85
    Table 3.4           Modern renewable energy: production and growth   94
    Table 3.5           Renewable energy promotion policies and targets in selected countries   96
    Table 3.6           Research pathways to improved cellulosic biofuels production   115
    Table 4.1           Policy options for promoting a transition to a sustainable energy future   126
    Table 4.2           Energy R&D opportunities   135
    Table 4.3           Cost of energy subsidies by source, 1995-1998 (US$ billion/year)   141

     

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