This summary is designed as a record of issues that were discussed during the international workshop on advances in science and technology for the BWC, held 13-15 September 2015. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the consensus opinions of workshop participants, the organizations that provided support for the project, or the 107 academies of science that form IAP nor mention of trade names, commercial practices, or organisations imply endorsement by the US or UK governments or other sponsors. Biosecure was commissioned to produce the background documents and initial drafts of the report documents.