Between 10 - 13 June 2018, more than 70 participants from 30 different countries and 5 international organisations took part in an international workshop, The Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight, in Zagreb, Croatia. Hosted by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the workshop was a collaboration among the InterAcademy Partnership, the Croatian Academy, the Croatian Society for Biosafety and Biosecurity, and the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies). This proceedings was prepared by the workshop rapporteurs as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. The workshop and proceedings address a major and complex set of issues in governance of life sciences research. The workshop could not give full consideration to all issues, arguments, and references relevant to this topic; the views contained in the proceedings are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the planning committee, or the U.S. National Academies.