During the 40th UNESCO General Conference in November 2019, UNESCO’s 193 Member States requested that UNESCO lead a global consultation on Open Science to develop globally-agreed norms and standards in the form of a UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science. As part of the consultation process, UNESCO requested IAP and other science organisations to contribute input to inform the Recommendation. IAP and its member academies, along with many other stakeholders, were also invited to complete a questionnaire about Open Science principles and the benefits and challenges of Open Science around the world. For more details about the UNESCO Recommendation, please see: https://en.unesco.org/news/unesco-launches- global-consultation-develop-standard-setting-instrument-open-science.

To prepare this document to inform UNESCO’s development of the Open Science Recommendation from the perspective of our global network of academies, IAP members nominated experts to constitute an international working group. The text presented below has thus been developed by the 10 members of this ad hoc working group on behalf of IAP. The text also draws on and references responses to the UNESCO questionnaire for inputs into the development of the Open Science Recommendation that were submitted by individual member academies as noted.