The report is a product of the workshop on Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) organized by the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) in partnership with NASAC, the Organisation of Women Scientists for the Developing World (OWSDW) and the Gender Advisory Board of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) in Pretoria, in May 2010. The workshop brought together various science education specialists from Africa, France and Australia. Participants explored ways to encourage girls and young women to enter into science at school and later into science careers and how to increase the participation of girls in science education.