The Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) in collaboration with Leopoldina hosted a working group meeting on Neonicotinoids and their Impact on Ecosystem Services for Agriculture and Biodiversity in Africa from 13-15 May 2019 at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), Nairobi. This working group meeting follows from a workshop which was held in South Africa in November 2018. The purpose of this working group meeting was for outstanding experts in the field to collaborate with the project’s scientific director to draft a report that summarises and outlines the state of knowledge on neonicotinoids and their impact on ecosystem services for agriculture and biodiversity in Africa. Furthermore, to draft key recommendations from science to policy-makers on the question of the use of neonicotinoids, and to discuss communication of the results to the relevant political and scientific authorities and the media.